However, at least six clear subspecies of U. dioica are described, some formerly classified as separate species: [28] However, in 2011, an early Bronze Age burial cist on Whitehorse Hill,[29][30] Dartmoor, Devon was excavated. Dandelions (Leontodon taraxacum) Dandelions are a harbinger of spring. [44], In indigenous justice systems in Ecuador, urtication was used as punishment for severe crimes in 2010. Standard deviations are given in brackets. Please reload CAPTCHA. Pingback: Another nettle | Identify that Plant, Pingback: Stinging Nettle - ONE Clip Video. Nettles are the larval food plant for several species of butterflies, such as the peacock butterfly,[14] comma (Polygonia c-album), and the small tortoiseshell. The nettle has … Stinging nettle is a medicinal plant with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties which makes it a super plant regarding its health benefits. [43] Urtication, or flogging with nettles is the process of deliberately applying stinging nettles to the skin to provoke inflammation. As the latin name of nettle (Urtica dioica) suggests (dioica means two houses) they produce two kind of plants - male and female. [74], "Stinging nettle" redirects here. Pingback: Stinging Nettle—Nature’s Antihistamine Herb - Ridge Haven Homestead %, Your email address will not be published. 9/3/12: Here’s a comparison with a fourth member of the nettle family. +  The figure of speech "to grasp the nettle" probably originated from Aesop's fable "The Boy and the Nettle". The leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a cordate base, and an acuminate tip with a terminal leaf tooth longer than adjacent laterals. dioica) is the only common stinging plant and has found a place in several figures of speech in the English language. We have 310 images of 104 dead nettles in our Dead Nettles database. It contained various high value beads as well as fragments of a sash made from nettle fibre. The fibres are coarser, however. The fourth nettle (the left-most image in the four-across groupings above) is called False nettle. are herbaceous, fast-growing plants native to the U.S. and Europe. Wonder why the clear weed took over, but it can still be harvested and consumed. var notice = document.getElementById("cptch_time_limit_notice_88"); There is a common idea in Great Britain that the nettle was introduced by the Romans. Minerals (Ca, K, Mg, P, Si, S, Cl) and trace elements (Ti, 80 ppm,[55] Mn, Cu, Fe) contents depend mostly on the soil and the season. The tiny flowers are arranged in inflorescences that hang off the stems like catkins. In Europe, nettles have a strong association with human habitation and buildings. … Lamium is an excellent ground cover perennial for shady areas, grown largely for its spreading foliage and colorful flowers. Stinging nettle is a member of the large family Urticaceae and is a decidedly unpleasant herbaceous perennial. Nettle (or stinging nettle) is a plant also known as Bichu, Feuille d'Ortie, Graine d'Ortie, Grande Ortie, Ortie, Ortiga, Urtica, and other names. Male flowers can be yellow or purple, while female flowers are green and white. The top baby leaves are selected and simmered, then mixed with other ingredients such as herbs and rice, before being used as a filling between dough layers. I have stinging nettle on my property and I went out to harvest some today and now it is clear weed. Nettle has high carotenoid contents, especially lutein, β-carotene and zeaxanthin, of which lutein and zeaxanthin act as yellow pigments. [5][16][17][18][19] Anti-itch drugs, usually in the form of creams containing antihistamines or hydrocortisone, may provide relief from nettle dermatitis. Shakespeare's Hotspur urges that "out of this nettle, danger, we pluck this flower, safety" (Henry IV, part 1, Act II Scene 3).  =  I felt good after a day and pain of arthritis is gone! 170, Frankh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co, Stuttgart 2003. That said, some mild side effects have been reported. Wood nettle’s leaves alternate on the stem. The perennial, which belongs to the famil… Unlike cotton, nettles grow easily without pesticides. In French, the idiom faut pas pousser mémé dans les orties (don't push grandma in the nettles) means that we should be careful not to abuse a situation. To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.). Today I was checking it and now it is all clear weed growing. The competition dates back to 1986, when two neighbouring farmers attempted to settle a dispute about which had the worst infestation of nettles. May Reduce Inflammation. Table 2: Carotenoid concentration of leaves of U. dioica (μg/ g dry weight). I do not know about toxicity. }, Confidently master the skill of correct plant identification. In laying hens, nettle can be used as an egg yolk colorant instead of artificial pigments or other natural pigments (derived from marigold for yellow). The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs, and in most subspecies, also bear many stinging hairs (trichomes or spicules), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that can inject several chemicals causing a painful sting or paresthesia, giving the species its common names: stinging nettle, burn nettle, burn weed, or burn hazel.[3][5][4]. Stinging nettle is distributed nearly worldwide but is especially common in Europe, North America, North Africa, and parts of Asia. [54] Thereare also differences in the characteristics of their flowers. It spreads by abundant seeds and also by rhizomes, and is often able to survive and re-establish quickly after fire. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In North America, it is widely distributed in Canada and the United States, where it is found in every province and state except for Hawaii, and also can be found in northernmost Mexico. The European subspecies has been introduced into Australia, North America and South America.[10][11]. [73], Urtica is derived from a Latin word meaning 'sting'. The inflorescence shape is reflected in its scientific name — Boehmeria cylindrica — as the flowers are grouped in cylindrical shapes along the stem. })(120000); It is also eaten by the larvae of some moths including angle shades, buff ermine, dot moth, the flame, the gothic, grey chi, grey pug, lesser broad-bordered yellow underwing, mouse moth, setaceous Hebrew character, and small angle shades. Stinging nettle can be found throughout North America, Europe, Asia and North Africa. Many folks know of its medicinal and edible qualities and enjoy foraging for it. [68], The stinging nettle can also be grown in controlled-environment agriculture systems, such as soil-less medium cultivations or aeroponics, which may achieve higher yields, standardize quality, and reduce harvesting costs and contamination. The leaves are arranged opposite each other along the stems with flowers in long compound clusters. Heiko Bellmann: Der Neue Kosmos Schmetterlingsführer, Schmetterlinge, Raupen und Futterpflanzen, pg. It can grow in any … thanks for the info… I think I found clearweed… thought it was a nettle but couldn’t figure out why I wasn’t getting stung… now I know! It’s is native to most parts of the United States and Canada. Young plants were harvested by Native Americans and used as a cooked plant in spring when other food plants were scarce. [57][58][59] Feeding as little as 6.25 g dry nettle per kg feed is as effective as the synthetic pigments to colour the egg yolk. However, the Indian nettle (or Stinging nettle) is most widespread, because the species, which originates from North America, was used by the Indians as a medicinal plant long before its introduction as an ornamental plant. Urtica dioica is considered to be native to Europe, much of temperate Asia and western North Africa. The leaves are the same with the stinging nettle, only that they don’t have the thing that stung. I’m not aware of a difference since both of them can sting equally for me. I use to mow near the nettle and would get stung all the time. [27] The idea was mentioned by William Camden in his book Britannia of 1586. More recently, companies in Austria, Germany, and Italy have started to produce commercial nettle textiles. Stinging nettles are known throughout the world as a very nutritious and highly medicinal plant though you must be careful when harvesting them. Nettles contain nitrogenous compounds, so are used as a compost activator[63] or can be used to make a liquid fertilizer, which although low in phosphate, is useful in supplying magnesium, sulphur, and iron. Required fields are marked *. [67], Three cultivation techniques can be used for the stinging nettle: 1) direct sowing, 2) growing seedlings in nurseries with subsequent transplantation and 3) vegetative propagation via stolons or head cuttings. The three main types you will come across if you look really hard are the Common (Urtica dioica), Dwarf (U. urens)and Roman (U. pilulifera). Nettle, also known as Urtica dioica, common, or stinging nettle, is an herbaceous flowering plant. Dead Nettles: Plant Care and Collection of Varieties. Most herbivores are discouraged from grazing on this plant because of irritating toxins secreted by … Direct seeding is possible, but leads to great heterogeneity in maturity. = "block"; Since nettles prefer to grow in phosphorus-rich and nitrogen rich soils that have recently been disturbed (and thus aerated), the growth of nettles is an indicator that an area has high fertility (especially phosphate and nitrate), and thus is an indicator to gardeners as to the quality of the soil. As you can see in the wood nettle photo above (taken in early spring), the stems and underside of the leaves are covered with stinging hairs.   Stinging nettle has similar stinging hairs along its stems. Stinging Nettle—Nature’s Antihistamine Herb - Ridge Haven Homestead %. timeout Their bright yellow flowers … Amazing! [47] German Army uniforms were almost all made from nettle during World War I due to a potential shortage of cotton. The most common variety (Urtica dioica procera) is native to North America, being prolific in California and other areas of the western United States, and is referred to by a number of common names for its two mo… [15], Urtica dioica produces its inflammatory effect on skin (stinging, burning sensation often called "contact urticaria") both by impaling the skin via spicules – causing mechanical irritation – and by biochemical irritants, such as histamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, among other chemicals. Nettle seeds are also used as an aphrodisiac that help enhance libido. [39], In the UK, an annual World Nettle Eating Championship draws thousands of people to Dorset, where competitors attempt to eat as much of the raw plant as possible. Competitors are given 60 cm (24 in) stalks of the plant, from which they strip the leaves and eat them. Stinging nettle should not be confused with "white dead nettle" (Lamium album). Nettles are perennials; perennials are plants that last several years. display: none !important; In the German language, the idiom sich in die Nesseln setzen, or to sit in nettles, means to get into trouble. Nettles, Urtica spp. dioica. I supposed what I have in my garden is clearweed. Some carotenes are precursors of vitamin A (retinol), their retinol equivalents RE or retinol activity equivalents per g dry weight are 1.33 for mature leaves and 0.9 for young leaves. The New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox), showing secretory (glandular), or stinging, hairs (trichomes). In Hungarian, the idiom csalánba nem üt a mennykő, the thunderbolt does not strike into nettle, means bad people escape trouble or the devil looks after his own. L) Powder or Essential Oil", "Compost Teas vs Other Teas and Extracts", "Potential for Greenhouse Aeroponic Cultivation of Urtica Dioica",, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with failed verification from March 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Growing seedlings: For this technique pre-germinated seeds are sown between mid-/end-February and beginning of April and grown in, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 04:32. The tall green plant, which resembles mint, is covered in delicate white flowers and tiny hairs. It may be of interest to note that not all species of stinging nettle have literal stinging properties. Here are some closer views of the False nettle … [5] The term, contact urticaria, has a wider use in dermatology, involving dermatitis caused by various skin irritants and pathogens. The third plant to review in the nettle family is clearweed (Pilea pumila) — also found in eastern North America.  I have read that it is edible and people have foraged and eaten this plant — mistakenly thinking they were harvesting stinging nettle. Nettle was believed to be a galactagogue – a substance that promotes lactation. It bears small, greenish or brownish, numerous flowers in dense axillary inflorescences. The English word 'nettled', meaning irritated or angry, is derived from 'nettle'.[26]. It’s important to note that the types of plants called deadnettle aren’t stinging nettles. The name urticaria for hives comes from the Latin name of nettle (Urtica, from urere, to burn). U. dioica has a flavour similar to spinach mixed with cucumber when cooked, and is rich in vitamins A and C, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium. [1][7], Urtica dioica is a dioecious, herbaceous, perennial plant, 1 to 2 m (3 to 7 ft) tall in the summer and dying down to the ground in winter. Is their any difference between the strength of the sting from wood nettle and stinging nettle. Although nutritious, it is not widely eaten by either wildlife or livestock, presumably because of the sting. I gave some to my pet dog and ate it! [64][65] They are also one of the few plants that can tolerate, and flourish in, soils rich in poultry droppings. The metaphor may refer to the fact that if a nettle plant is grasped firmly rather than brushed against, it does not sting so readily, because the hairs are crushed down flat and do not penetrate the skin so easily.[24]. Seeds contain much more fatty acid than leaves.[54]. Click here to browse or search the plants in this database. [12] Human and animal waste may be responsible for elevated levels of phosphate[13] and nitrogen in the soil, providing an ideal environment for nettles. Since both stinging nettle and wood nettle look so much alike — and both protect themselves with stinging hairs — how can we tell these two plants apart?  The most obvious difference is the orientation of the leaves along the stems.  Stinging nettle’s leaves are opposite each other. As the name implies, stinging nettle has the capacity to irritate and blister when it comes into contact with skin. )  All three plants are in the Nettle Family.  And each has been assigned to a different genus (Urtica, Laportea and Pilea). Probably the most commonly known and recognized member of the Nettle Family (Urticaceae) is stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). [74], Dioica is derived from Greek, meaning 'of two houses' (having separate staminate and pistillate plants; dioecious). (function( timeout ) { In Dutch, a netelige situatie means a predicament. The cist dated from between 1730 and 1600 BC. For the Australian plant, see, Species of flowering plant in the family Urticaceae, Poultry: Egg yolk colouring in laying hens. Hi Sunshine…..just wondering what the difference between Indian Nettle and stinging Nettle….Is there such a plant or is it just where it has come from…Thankyou. [40][41], Alcoholic beer can be made from young nettles. The taxonomy of Urtica species has been confused, and older sources are likely to use a variety of systematic names for these plants. The roots are sometimes eaten by the larva of the ghost moth (Hepialus humuli). I have not heard of “Indian nettle.” An internet search turned up information on wikipedia for Acalypha indica. It grows in abundance in the Pacific Northwest, especially in places where annual rainfall is high. Female plant The taxonomy of Urtica species has been confused, and older sources are likely to use a variety of systematic names for these plants. … [32] After the stinging nettle enters its flowering and seed-setting stages, the leaves develop gritty particles called cystoliths, which can irritate the urinary tract. Inflammation is your body’s way of healing itself and fighting infections. Stinging plant § Plants with stinging hairs, "Identifying plant fibre textiles from Norwegian Merovingian Period and Viking Age graves: The Late Iron Age Collection of the University Museum of Bergen", "Mechanism of Action of Stinging Nettles", "U.K. Standards of care for occupational contact dermatitis and occupational contact urticaria", "Home remedies: dock leaves for nettle stings", "The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Æsop For Children, by Æsop", "Grasping the nettle: an empirical enquiry", "The cist on Whitehorse Hill - Current Archaeology", "Gouda Cheese with Stinging Nettles: Cooking Terms", World Stinging Nettle Eating Championship attracts record crowd, "Homebrew from the hedgerow: nettle beer", "Galactagogue herbs: a qualitative study and review", "Ecuador's indigenous justice system on trial", "Nettle as a distinct Bronze-Age textile plant", "Second skin: why wearing nettles is the next big thing", "10 Jahre anbautechnische Versuche zu Fasernesseln (Urtica dioica L.) in Thüringen", "Production and processing of organically grown fiber nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and its potential use in the natural textile industry: A review", "USDA National Nutrient Database: raw carrot", "Oxidative stability of the meat of broilers supplemented with rosemary leaves, rosehip fruits, chokeberry pomace, and entire nettle, and effects on performance and meat quality", "Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, Antioxidant Stability and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Nettle (Urtica dioica. Anothersimilar species, Boehmeria cylindrica(FalseNettle), also has opposite leaves, but it lacks stinging hairsaltogether. While male plants produce pollen to fertilize the female plants, they in turn produce the seeds. It is less widespread in southern Europe and north Africa, where it is restricted by its need for moist soil, but is still common. "The Names of Plants". It is possible that the sash was traded from mainland Europe, but perhaps more probable that it was locally made. Dead nettle is one of those plants that almost has everything going for it, until it doesn’t. However, that may not be true for everyone. The perennial stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a perennial, herbaceous plant with creeping roots. [33] The leaves are also dried and may then be used to make a herbal tea, as can also be done with the nettle's flowers. It may be that the act of rubbing a dock leaf against a nettle sting acts as a distracting counterstimulation, or that belief in the dock's effect provides a placebo effect. It is perhaps most troublesome in loose, newly cultivated soil, especially where phosphate levels are high. It has been introduced to many other parts of the world. Stinging nettles are plants that are commonly found in many areas of the world. ); The promise is that Lamiums are fast-growing perennial ground cover or container plants that brighten partly sunny spots and produce charming flowers. [66] U. dioica can be a troubling weed, and mowing can increase plant density. There are many other varieties of nettle that you can grow, but stinging nettle is the most common. Harvesting nettle seeds. It can also be categorized as a noxious weed. [54] Whoever strips and eats the most stinging nettle leaves in a fixed time is the winner. Formerly, more species were recognised than are now accepted. [3][4] The species is divided into six subspecies, five of which have many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on the leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation upon contact ("contact urticaria", a form of contact dermatitis). The creeping surface stems can extend for some considerable distance, rooting at … setTimeout( I suspect they are not toxic to animals — although they probably wouldn’t eat them because of the “stinging” quality of the plant. [25] The same idiom exists in the Serbian language - неће гром у коприве. Stinging nettle is particularly found as an understory plant in wetter environments, but it is also found in meadows. For more in-depth information (e.g. Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has opposite, elongate, coarsely toothed leaves and is found on dry disturbed sites. Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis) The stinging nettle is the Red Admiral caterpillar's primary host plant and can attract migrating Red Admiral butterflies to a garden. .hide-if-no-js { The presence of nettles may indicate the site of a long-abandoned building, and can also indicate soil fertility. [42], As Old English stiðe, nettle is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in 10th century traditional medicine. [3] It has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, which are bright yellow, as are the roots. [5][6] The plant has a long history of use as a source for traditional medicine, food, tea, and textile raw material in ancient societies such as the Saxons. [53][57] Nettle contains ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pantothenic acid, vitamin K1[53] and tocopherols (vitamin E). Standard deviations are given in brackets. [31] In its peak season, nettle contains up to 25% protein, dry weight, which is high for a leafy green vegetable. [57], Ruminants avoid fresh stinging nettles, however if the nettles are wilted or dry, voluntary intake can be high. Please reload CAPTCHA. North American distribution, attributed to U. S. Department of Agriculture. The bull nettle plant is one of the many types of stinging nettles. Increase Your Energy Levels: Nettles are used as a traditional spring tonic to strengthen and support … The soft, green leaves are 3 to 15 cm (1 to 6 in) long and are borne oppositely on an erect, wiry, green stem. Cambridge University Press. [53] Nettle contains much less carotenes and retinol than carrots, which contain 8.35 RE per g fresh weight. It has white flowers and is abundant throughout the Southern United States. Overview. The most common complaints relate to digestion. However, the Wood Nettle has some alternateleaves, while Stinging Nettle has pairs of opposite leaves only. if ( notice ) [36], Nettles are used in Albania as part of the dough filling for the börek. Gledhill, David (2008). When we look at the leaves we can see how very similar they are in shape.  Clearweed’s leaves are smooth and somewhat glossy while both stinging nettle and wood nettle have “rougher” looking leaves. Table 1: Fatty acid content of different plant organs of U. Your email address will not be published. [50] Fibre varieties are normally cloning varieties and therefore planted from vegetative propagated plantlets. [34] Nettle soup is a common use of the plant, particularly in Northern and Eastern Europe. The sentenced perpetrator of a crime was flogged with stinging nettle, in public, naked, whilst being showered with freezing cold water. Do you know if nettles are toxic to cats or dogs? Formerly, more species were recognised than are now accepted. Later in the year, the clearweed stem becomes more obviously translucent (“clear”) and flexible. Under middle-European conditions, stems yield typically between 45 and 55 dt / ha (decitons per hectare), which is comparable to flax stem yield. [37][38] Similarly, in Greece the tender leaves are often used, after simmering, as a filling for hortopita, which is similar to spanakopita, but with wild greens rather than spinach for filling. ten The common nettle, as described before, is the one most likely found around the hedgerows followed by the dwarf nettle. [51], Nettles may be used as a dye-stuff, producing yellow from the roots, or yellowish green from the leaves. Time limit is exhausted. [22], In Great Britain and Ireland, the stinging nettle (U. dioica subsp. [45], Nettle stems contain a bast fibre that has been traditionally used for the same purposes as linen and is produced by a similar retting process. Stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, has leaves and stems with tiny, hollow, tipped hairs. function() { Less well known is wood nettle (Laportea canadensis) which is native to the eastern half of North America.  It, too, is prized by foragers as food and medicine. Nettles can be used in a variety of recipes, such as polenta, pesto, and purée. Urtica dioica, often known as common nettle, stinging nettle (although not all plants of this species sting) or nettle leaf, or just a nettle or stinger, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae. Clearweed does not have any stinging hairs at all. Nettle leaf tea and other portions of the nettle plant are widely considered to be safe to ingest. The stinging nettle plant is similar to the heart-leaf nettle and is found in Florida, but it’s native to Eurasia and is a perennial herb. Do not confuse these plants with dead nettle (Lamium maculatum), a harmless perennial plant used in shade gardens. [54] For exact fatty acid contents see Table 1. [citation needed], Nettles have a number of other uses in the vegetable garden, including the potential for encouraging beneficial insects. [46], Historically, nettles have been used to make clothing for almost 3,000 years, as ancient nettle textiles from the Bronze Age have been found in Denmark. nettle (Urtica dioica, Laportea canadensis; NETTLE FAMILY [Urticaceae]) Two distinct but related species, each with stinging hairs. Plant taxonomy: Stinging nettle is a member of the genus, Urtica, a broadleaf, perennial plant. [53] Mature leaves contain about 40% α- linolenic acid, a valuable omega-3 acid. please check out our Stinging Nettle PDF magazine. So let’s look at some commonalities and differences between these three plants.  (If you click on the images below, you will be taken to a larger view of each of them. Stinging nettle, Indian nettle, bergamot, gold balm, bee balm or – based on the botanical name – monard: The species of the genus Monarda carry many different names. nutrition, medicinal values, recipes, historical information, harvesting tips, etc.) If that if the plant you are referring to, then I recommend reviewing the wikipedia article for a description of the plant.

types of nettle plants

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