[21] Along the Mount Carmel range is Hof HaCarmel, or the Carmel Coastal Plain. Fundamental to an understanding of the land of Israel is the feature of four longitudinal zones that define the land. Israel on a World Wall Map: Israel is one of nearly 200 countries illustrated on our Blue Ocean Laminated Map of the World. This online quiz is called Israel Physical Features. [23] This can result in rare flash floods during heavy rains as water runs across the surface of the impervious desert soil. Israel is on the eastern Mediterranean, bordered by Lebanon and Syria to the north, the Palestine National Authority (West Bank) and Jordan to the east, and Egypt to the south. Gaza, a small coastal strip between Israel and Egypt, is claimed by the Palestine National Authority, but under de facto rule by the militant group Hamas. [20], Geographically, the region is divided into five sub-regions. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. I think the only characteristic shared by almost everybody in Israel is that the eyes show you they’ve been out in the sun a lot. Gaza, a small coastal strip between Israel and Egypt, is claimed by the Palestine National Authority, but under de facto rule by the militant group Hamas. However, ancient Israel had a much more temperate environment and evolved into a settled nation over time. The Coastal Plain. [19] It is about 40 kilometers (25 mi) wide at Gaza and narrows toward the north to about 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) at the Lebanese border. Height : -408 m (Dead Sea) Max. The inland area of central Israel is dominated by the Judean Hills of the West Bank, whilst the central and northern coastline consists of the flat and fertile Israeli coastal plain. The Israeli Coastal Plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to seventy percent of the nation's population. 1. It is about 115 miles (185 km) long and is quite narrow. East of the coastal plain lies the central highland region. Climate charts of different locations in Israel. Israel has a small coastline on the Red Sea in the south. [1] As of 2003 1,940 square kilometers (749 sq mi) were irrigated. Physical Features of the Holy Land. The land is naturally divided into four narrow zones running north and south. Israel, Arabic Isrāʾīl, officially State of Israel or Hebrew Medinat Yisraʾel, country in the Middle East, located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. Some think that this refers to the Church. A sandy shoreline with many beaches borders the Mediterranean coast. [19] In Israel the Rift Valley is dominated by the Jordan River, the Sea of Galilee (an important freshwater source also known as Lake Tiberias and Lake Kinneret), and the Dead Sea. The statistics provided by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics include the annexed East Jerusalem and Golan Heights, but exclude the West Bank and Gaza Strip. [35] Rainfall is unevenly distributed, significantly lower in the south of the country. The Other Side of the Jordan. [29] While stringent construction regulations are currently in place and recently built structures are earthquake-safe, as of 2007 the majority of the buildings in Israel were older than these regulations and many public buildings as well as 50,000 residential buildings did not meet the new standards and were "expected to collapse" if exposed to a strong quake. Israel is a small country with a relatively diverse topography, consisting of a lengthy coastal plain, highlands in the north and central regions, and the Negev desert in the south. The Central Mountains Plateau. Precipitation is often concentrated in violent storms, causing erosion and flash floods. 400 years on average. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Each district is then further divided into sub-districts. [28], Israel's longest and most famous river is the 320-kilometre (199 mi) long River Jordan, which rises on the southern slopes of Mount Hermon in the Anti-Lebanon mountains. [1] Small amounts of natural gas and crude oil are present, often too little to merit commercial extraction. From AC/DC to Bruce Springsteen, test your knowledge of the origins of various musicians and groups in this quiz. The Mount Carmel range, which culminates in a peak 1,791 feet (546 metres) high, forms a spur reaching northwest from the highlands of the West Bank, cutting almost to the coast of Haifa. [1] It is bounded to the north by Lebanon, the northeast by Syria, the east by Jordan and the West Bank, and to the southwest by Egypt. [1], The Israeli Coastal Plain stretches from the Lebanese border in the north to Gaza in the south, interrupted only by Cape Carmel at Haifa Bay. Israel has a chronic water shortage, and its hydraulic resources are fully utilized: about three-fourths for irrigation and the remainder for industrial and household water use. [19] Several valleys cut across the highlands roughly from east to west; the largest is the Jezreel Valley (also known as the Plain of Esdraelon), which stretches 48 kilometers (30 mi) from Haifa southeast to the valley of the Jordan River, and is 19 kilometers (12 mi) across at its widest point. [21], Inland (east) of the coastal plain lies the central highland region. Features of the Land. Political and social repercussions of the war, The Declaration of Principles and Cairo Agreement, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Israel, Official Site of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Israel - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Rugged terrain, running from Judea though Samaria and into upper Galilee. Area : 20 770 Km2: Water : 2.1 % Lands under cultivation : 21 % Wild pasture lands : 7 % Forests : 6 % Min. Students analyze a variety of maps to create a map of Israel and the Palestinian territories’ physical geography, and reason about Jerusalem’s location. Israel is in the Middle East on the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank. There are two distinct seasons: a cool, rainy winter (October–April) and a dry, hot summer (May–September). [19] Geographically it is an extension of the Sinai Desert, forming a rough triangle with its base in the north near Beersheba, the Dead Sea, and the southern Judean Mountains, and it has its apex in the southern tip of the country at Eilat. But seriously, it depends on what you mean by “common.” Widespread, or shared by almost everybody? It stretches from Rosh HaNikra in the north and down to Haifa, Israel's third-largest city. South of this, running to Nahal Shikma, is the Central Coastal Plain, also known as the Western Negev. [22] The Negev is also sub-divided into five different ecological regions: northern, western and central Negev, the high plateau and the Arabah Valley. In the north of the country, the mountains of Galilee constitute the highest part of Israel, reaching an elevation of 3,963 feet (1,208 metres) at Mount Meron (Arabic: Jebel Jarmaq). [39][40], As of 2013, the population of Israel is 8 million, 6,015,000 of them Jewish. [19] The central highlands average 610 meters (2,001 ft) in height and reach their highest elevation at Har Meron, at 1,208 meters (3,963 ft), in Galilee near Safed. Differences in land elevations relative to the sea level are represented by color. There are two distinct seasons: a cool, rainy winter (October–April) and a dry, hot summer (May–September). Students of the World => Countries of the World => Israel. The northernmost section lays between the Lebanese border, the Western Galilee to the east, and the sea. An Empire in the Holy Land: Historical Geography of the British Administration in Palestine, 1917–1929, Gideon Biger, St. Martin's Press and Magnes Press, 1994, pp.46–52. The deficit in slip that has built up since the 1033 event is sufficient to cause an earthquake of Mw ~7.4. Among the various nations or city-states in this area, Israel evolved into a nation with a monarch… [37], Israel has a large number of environmental concerns ranging from natural hazards to man-made issues both resulting from ancient times to modern development. [38] All rural settlements and many small towns (some of which are dubbed "rurban settlements") are incorporated in regional councils. The Jordan River, which marks part of the frontier between Israel and Jordan, flows southward through the rift from Dan on Israel’s northern frontier, where it is 500 feet (152 metres) above sea level, first into the Ḥula Valley (Hebrew: ʿEmeq HaḤula), then into the freshwater Lake Tiberias, also known as the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: Yam Kinneret), which lies 686 feet (209 metres) below sea level. It is a fertile region, and off the coast there are many small islands. The Israeli Coastal Plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to seventy percent of the nation's population. [50] Other small, but notable groups in Israel, include Circassians of whom there are approximately 3,000 living mostly in two northern villages, 2,500 Lebanese, and 5,000 Armenians predominantly in Jerusalem.[51][52]. Physical Features of the Land of Israel. How well do you know your musical places? Unlike much of the Middle East which is rich in lucrative crude oil, Israel has limited natural resources. [1][2][3] Israel stretches 424 km (263 mi) from north to south, and its width ranges from 114 km (71 mi) to, at its narrowest point, 15 km (9.3 mi). [32] A peninsula juts out into the lake from the eastern shore, south of which the lake is shallow, less than 6 meters (19.7 ft) deep. Israel has a distinct geographical identity that heavily influenced its early settlers. Vegetation & Animals Water Features A war resulting from Israel - Israel - Climate: Israel has a wide variety of climatic conditions, caused mainly by the country’s diverse topography. The Sea of Galilee is located beyond this region and is bordered to the east by the Golan Heights, a plateau bordered to the north by the Israeli-occupied part of the Mount Hermon massif, which includes the highest point under Israel's control, a peak of 2,224 meters (7,297 ft). It is bounded to the north by Lebanon, to the northeast by Syria, to the east and southeast by Jordan, to the southwest by Egypt, and to the west by the Mediterranean Sea. [32], There are no navigable, artificial waterways in Israel, although the National Water Carrier, a conduit for drinking water, might be classified as such. And what do they do with the money? [30] The river flows south through the freshwater Sea of Galilee, and from there forms the boundary with the Kingdom of Jordan for much of its route, eventually emptying into the Dead Sea. Israel is a small country with a relatively diverse topography, consisting of a lengthy coastal plain, highlands in the north and central regions, and the Negev desert in the south. Israel is located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea in Western Asia. Palestine Geography consists of four regions in the country. The bed of the lake forms part of the Jordan Rift Valley. As observed on the physical map of Israel above, despite its small size, the country has a highly varied topography. The State of Israel is the only Jewish nation in the modern period, and the region that now falls within its borders has a lengthy and rich history that dates from prebiblical times. [2] Geographical features in these territories will be noted as such. Assumes CIA World Factbook number excludes Israeli settlers but includes estimated 225k Palestinians living in East Jerusalem", "Gaza Strip population. The principal drainage system comprises Lake Tiberias and the Jordan River. Physical Features of the Middle East. The highest point in territory internationally recognized as Israeli is Mount Meron at 1,208 meters (3,963 ft). [45][47], Israel's population is diverse demographically; 76% Jewish, 20% Arab, and 4% unaffiliated. [35], Thunderstorms and hail are common throughout the rainy season and waterspouts occasionally hit the Mediterranean coast, capable of causing only minor damage.